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Profiles in Courage: International

Concern about the weak evidence base for puberty blockers, cross-sex hormones and surgery for minors continues to spread internationally, across European countries as well as Australia. 


Several systematic reviews of evidence for the use of puberty blockers and hormones for children and adolescents with gender dysphoria have been completed by European public health authorities, two of which can be read here and here. A summary of the Swedish review can be found here. These independent systematic reviews of evidence found the practice of youth gender transition to either not be clearly beneficial, or even net-harmful. 


As noted in a British Medical Journal (BMJ) investigation, “Gender dysphoria in young people is rising-and so is professional disagreement,” countries including England, Sweden, and Finland have found that the risks of puberty blockers, cross sex hormones and surgeries outweigh the potential benefits, and have shifted to psychosocial support as the first line of treatment for minors. 


In Finland, Dr. Riittakerttu Kaltiala is a top pediatric gender expert and lead psychiatrist at one of the two government run gender clinics for minors. In light of the findings of systematic reviews, she has spoken out about the danger of gender affirming care for minors.


In Australia, Dr. Jillian Spencer is a child and adolescent psychiatrist who spoke out about the “affirmation only” approach of the Queensland Children Hospital where she works as a specialist psychiatrist.


Dr. Jillian Spencer



Dr. Riittakerttu Kaltiala


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